Hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane mechanism?


Question: Hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane mechanism?

The hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane typically occurs in the presence of a catalyst, such as platinum or palladium, under high temperature and pressure. The mechanism of this reaction involves the following steps:


1. Adsorption: The hydrogen gas (H2) is adsorbed onto the surface of the catalyst, where it dissociates into hydrogen atoms (H).


2. Activation: The benzene molecule is also adsorbed onto the surface of the catalyst, where it is activated by the formation of a sigma complex with the catalyst.


3. Hydrogenation: The activated benzene molecule undergoes hydrogenation, in which each of the six carbon-carbon double bonds in benzene is reduced by the addition of a hydrogen atom, forming cyclohexene. This is an exothermic reaction.


4. Hydrogenation (continued): The cyclohexene molecule then undergoes further hydrogenation, in which each of the remaining carbon-carbon double bonds is reduced by the addition of another hydrogen atom, forming cyclohexane.


5. Desorption: The cyclohexane molecules desorb from the catalyst surface and are released as a product of the reaction.


Overall, the hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane is an important industrial process for the production of cyclohexane, which is used as a solvent, a chemical intermediate, and a component in the production of nylon and other synthetic materials.


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