Describe the following cell-surface modifications using the table below?

Question: Describe the following cell-surface modifications using the table below?

In this blog post, I will describe some of the common cell-surface modifications that occur in different types of cells, using the table below as a reference. Cell-surface modifications are changes in the structure or composition of the plasma membrane or the extracellular matrix that affect the interactions between cells and their environment. Some of these modifications are:

- Glycocalyx: A layer of carbohydrates (sugars) attached to proteins or lipids on the cell surface. It serves as a recognition marker for cell-cell and cell-molecule interactions, as well as a protective barrier against pathogens and mechanical stress.

- Microvilli: Finger-like projections of the plasma membrane that increase the surface area for absorption or secretion. They are found in cells that are involved in transport processes, such as intestinal epithelial cells or kidney tubule cells.

- Cilia: Hair-like structures that extend from the cell surface and have a core of microtubules. They can be motile or non-motile. Motile cilia can move in a coordinated way to propel fluids or particles along the cell surface, such as in respiratory epithelial cells or oviduct cells. Non-motile cilia can sense environmental signals, such as in olfactory receptor cells or kidney cells.

- Flagella: Similar to cilia, but longer and usually present in single or few numbers. They are used for locomotion by some cells, such as sperm cells or some protozoa.

- Cell junctions: Specialized structures that connect adjacent cells or anchor them to the extracellular matrix. They can be classified into three types: tight junctions, which seal the gaps between cells and prevent leakage of substances; adherens junctions and desmosomes, which link the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells and provide mechanical strength; and gap junctions, which allow direct communication between adjacent cells by forming channels for small molecules.

| Cell type | Cell-surface modification | Function |


| Intestinal epithelial cell | Microvilli | Increase surface area for absorption |

| Respiratory epithelial cell | Cilia | Move mucus and trapped particles out of the airways |

| Sperm cell | Flagellum | Propel the cell towards the egg |

| Olfactory receptor cell | Non-motile cilia | Detect odor molecules |

| Red blood cell | Glycocalyx | Prevent aggregation and recognition by immune system |

| Cardiac muscle cell | Gap junctions | Coordinate contraction by electrical coupling |

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