Factors affecting science and technology in nigeria?

Question: Factors affecting science and technology in nigeria?

Nigeria is a country with abundant natural and human resources, but it has not been able to achieve its full potential in science and technology. Science and technology are essential for economic development, social progress, and environmental sustainability. However, there are many factors that affect the growth and advancement of science and technology in Nigeria. Some of these factors are:

- Lack of adequate funding: Science and technology require huge investments in research, infrastructure, equipment, and human capital. However, Nigeria has not allocated enough funds to support science and technology activities. According to a report by the African Union, Nigeria spent only 0.2% of its GDP on research and development in 2017, far below the recommended 1% . This has limited the capacity and quality of scientific and technological institutions, projects, and outputs in the country.

- Lack of appropriate technology: Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. However, not all technologies are suitable for the local context and needs of Nigeria. Nigeria has often relied on foreign technologies that are expensive, incompatible, or unsustainable for its development challenges. For instance, Nigeria imports most of its machinery, equipment, and spare parts from abroad, which increases the cost of production and maintenance . There is a need for Nigeria to develop and adopt appropriate technologies that are relevant, affordable, adaptable, and environmentally friendly for its specific conditions.

- Lack of indigenous technology: Indigenous technology is the knowledge and skills that are developed by local people based on their culture, environment, and experience. Indigenous technology can enhance the creativity, innovation, and self-reliance of Nigerians in solving their problems. However, Nigeria has neglected and abandoned its indigenous technology due to colonialism, westernization, and globalization. For example, Nigeria has lost many of its traditional crafts, arts, and techniques that were used for agriculture, health, construction, and communication . There is a need for Nigeria to revive and promote its indigenous technology as a source of pride, identity, and empowerment.

- Lack of quality education: Education is the foundation of science and technology. It equips people with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are necessary for scientific and technological development. However, Nigeria has not provided quality education for its citizens, especially in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). According to a report by UNESCO, Nigeria had a literacy rate of 59.6% in 2018, lower than the average of 64.8% for sub-Saharan Africa . Moreover, Nigeria had a low enrolment rate of 28% in tertiary education in 2017 . This has resulted in a shortage of qualified scientists, engineers, technicians, and innovators in the country.

- Lack of political will: Political will is the commitment and determination of the government to support science and technology as a priority for national development. However, Nigeria has not demonstrated enough political will to foster science and technology in the country. There is a lack of clear vision, policy framework, coordination mechanism, incentive system, and accountability structure for science and technology in Nigeria . This has led to poor implementation, monitoring, evaluation, and impact of science and technology initiatives in the country.


Science and technology are vital for Nigeria's development. However, there are many factors that hinder their growth and advancement in the country. These factors include lack of adequate funding,

lack of appropriate technology,

lack of indigenous technology,

lack of quality education,

and lack of political will.

Nigeria needs to address these factors by increasing its investment in research and development,

developing and adopting technologies that suit its local context and needs,

reviving and promoting its indigenous technology,

improving its education system with a focus on STEM,

and demonstrating strong political will to support science and technology as a national priority.

By doing so,

Nigeria can harness the benefits of science

and technology for its economic growth,

social progress,

and environmental sustainability.

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