What is double fertilization in plants class 10?

Question: What is double fertilization in plants class 10?

Double fertilization is a type of fertilization mechanism of flowering plants. In this process, the generative nucleus in the pollen tube undergoes mitotic division to produce two male gametes. Out of the two male gametes one gamete fuses with the egg nucleus while the other fuses with the polar nuclei to form PEN (Primary Endospermic Nucleus). Since fusion occurs twice the process is known as double fertilization. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit and the ovule of the flower develops into a seed .

Double fertilization is a unique and important biological process in flowering plants that allows for the formation of seeds and the continuation of the species. It involves the fusion of two sperm cells with two different female gametes, resulting in the formation of two distinct structures - the zygote and the endosperm. The zygote develops into an embryo, which eventually grows into a new plant. The endosperm provides nourishment to the developing embryo  .

Double fertilization is a characteristic feature of angiosperms, which are the most diverse group of terrestrial plants. It is a complex process that involves the interaction of male and female reproductive structures in flowers. Pollination helps the pollen grains to reach the stigma via style. The pollen tube grows through the style and reaches the ovule inside the ovary. The two sperm cells enter the ovule through a synergid cell. One of the sperm cells fuses with the egg cell and forms a diploid (2n) zygote. The other sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei and forms a triploid (3n) primary endosperm nucleus (PEN). This is called triple fusion. The primary endosperm nucleus develops into the primary endosperm cell (PEC) and then into the endosperm, which is a nutritive tissue for the embryo. The zygote undergoes several cell divisions and forms an embryo with cotyledons, shoot apex and root apex  .

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