Describe construction and working of an optical fibre?

Question: Describe construction and working of an optical fibre?

An optical fibre is a remarkable technology that has revolutionized the way we communicate. It consists of a core, cladding, and protective coating. The core, usually made of glass or plastic, is where the light signal travels. Surrounding the core is the cladding, an optical material that reflects the light back into the core to prevent signal loss. This reflection is due to a principle known as total internal reflection, which allows light to travel over long distances with minimal loss. The protective coating shields the fibre from environmental damage and physical stress. When a light signal is introduced into the core, it bounces along the length of the fibre through the cladding, maintaining a high-speed journey due to the low refractive index difference between the core and cladding. This ingenious design enables data to be transmitted at the speed of light, making optical fibres a backbone of modern telecommunications.

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