Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata?

Question: Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata?

The stomata are tiny openings on the leaf surface that play a crucial role in photosynthesis and respiration by regulating the exchange of gases and water vapor between the plant and the atmosphere. The opening and closing of stomata are controlled by the turgor pressure within the guard cells that flank each stoma. When the guard cells are turgid, due to the accumulation of potassium ions (K+) which leads to the osmotic flow of water into the cells, they swell and cause the stomatal pore to open. Conversely, when the guard cells lose water, they become flaccid, and the stomatal pore closes. This process is influenced by environmental factors such as light, which triggers the opening of stomata to facilitate photosynthesis, and water availability, where water stress can cause the release of abscisic acid, leading to stomatal closure to prevent water loss.

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