Explain the impact of river rejuvenation on the gradient of a river?

Question: Explain the impact of river rejuvenation on the gradient of a river?

River rejuvenation is a geomorphological process that occurs when a river's base level—the lowest point to which it can erode—is lowered, either due to a fall in sea level or the rise of the land. This process increases the river's gravitational potential energy, leading to a steeper gradient and more vigorous erosion activities. As a result, the river cuts deeper into its bed, creating a more pronounced V-shaped valley and sometimes forming terraces, waterfalls, and rapids. These changes can significantly alter the river's profile and flow characteristics, affecting not only the river itself but also the surrounding ecosystems and human settlements. Rejuvenation can be caused by various factors, including tectonic uplift, sea-level changes, and climatic shifts. For instance, the Nile River experienced rejuvenation when the Mediterranean Sea dried up, leading to a dramatic drop in its base level and subsequent deepening of its channel. In India, efforts to rejuvenate the Ganga River focus on restoring its self-cleansing capacity, which has been compromised by pollution and overuse. The impact of river rejuvenation is complex and multifaceted, influencing not only the physical landscape but also the biological and social realms.

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