Differentiate between density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors and give at least two examples from the lesson of each.


Question: Differentiate between density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors and give at least two examples from the lesson of each.

Density-dependent limiting factors are those that become more intense as the population density increases. For example, competition for resources like food and water becomes fiercer when more individuals are vying for the same limited supplies. Predation is another density-dependent factor; as a population grows, it may attract more predators, which can help control the population size. On the other hand, density-independent limiting factors affect populations regardless of their size. These include environmental stresses like natural disasters—floods, fires, or storms—that can impact populations no matter how many individuals there are. Pollution is another example of a density-independent factor, as it can affect small and large populations alike if they are exposed to toxic substances in the environment.

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