State and explain five factors affecting science and technology in nigeria?

Question: State and explain five factors affecting science and technology in nigeria?

Science and technology are essential for the development of any nation. However, there are many factors that affect the progress and quality of science and technology in Nigeria. Here are five of them:

- Education: The level of education and literacy in Nigeria is low compared to other countries. According to the World Bank, the adult literacy rate in Nigeria was 59.6% in 2018, while the gross enrollment ratio for secondary education was 48.7%. This means that many Nigerians do not have access to quality education, especially in science and technology subjects. This limits their ability to acquire the skills and knowledge needed for innovation and research.

- Funding: The funding for science and technology in Nigeria is inadequate and inconsistent. According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Nigeria spent only 0.2% of its GDP on research and development in 2017, which is far below the African average of 0.5% and the global average of 2.2%. Moreover, the budget allocation for science and technology is often delayed or diverted for other purposes, leaving many research institutions and projects underfunded and understaffed.

- Infrastructure: The infrastructure for science and technology in Nigeria is poor and outdated. Many research facilities lack basic equipment, tools, and materials for conducting experiments and studies. The power supply is unreliable and often interrupted, affecting the operation of machines and devices. The internet connectivity is slow and expensive, limiting the access to information and communication. The transportation system is inefficient and congested, hindering the mobility of researchers and resources.

- Policy: The policy framework for science and technology in Nigeria is weak and fragmented. There is no clear vision or strategy for promoting and supporting science and technology development in the country. There are multiple agencies and ministries involved in science and technology affairs, but they often work in isolation or in conflict with each other. There is no effective coordination or collaboration among them, resulting in duplication of efforts and waste of resources. There is also a lack of transparency and accountability in the management and implementation of science and technology policies and programs.

- Culture: The culture of science and technology in Nigeria is not conducive for innovation and creativity. There is a low appreciation and recognition of science and technology among the public and the policymakers. There is a lack of awareness and interest in science and technology issues and opportunities among the youth. There is a high resistance to change and a preference for tradition among some segments of the society. There is also a low level of trust and cooperation among the stakeholders in the science and technology sector, such as researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, educators, etc.

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