A particular species of protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis. you know this because the chloroplasts _____.

Question: A particular species of protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis. you know this because the chloroplasts _____.

A protist is a eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant, or fungus. Protists can be unicellular or multicellular, and they can have diverse modes of nutrition. Some protists are photosynthetic, meaning they can make their own food using light energy. These protists are called algae, and they have chloroplasts in their cells. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain chlorophyll, the pigment that gives plants their green color and allows them to capture light.

But how did protists get chloroplasts? The answer is endosymbiosis, a process in which one organism lives inside another and becomes part of it. Endosymbiosis is how the first eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells. The ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria that were engulfed by larger cells and formed a symbiotic relationship with them.

However, not all chloroplasts have the same origin. Some protists have obtained chloroplasts via secondary endosymbiosis, which means they engulfed another eukaryotic cell that already had a chloroplast. This is different from primary endosymbiosis, which involves the direct engulfment of a prokaryotic cell by a eukaryotic cell.

How can we tell if a protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis? One clue is the number of membranes surrounding the chloroplast. In primary endosymbiosis, the chloroplast has two membranes: the inner membrane of the original bacterium and the outer membrane of the host cell's vacuole. In secondary endosymbiosis, the chloroplast has four membranes: the two original membranes plus the two membranes of the engulfed eukaryotic cell.

Another clue is the presence of a nucleomorph, a remnant of the nucleus of the engulfed eukaryotic cell. The nucleomorph contains some genes that are essential for the function of the chloroplast, but most of its genes have been transferred to the host cell's nucleus. The nucleomorph is located between the second and third membranes of the chloroplast.

An example of a protist that has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis is Euglena, a flagellated protist that can be found in freshwater habitats. Euglena's chloroplasts have four membranes and a nucleomorph, indicating that they originated from a green alga that was engulfed by an ancestral Euglena. Euglena can switch between photosynthesis and heterotrophy depending on the availability of light and organic nutrients.

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